External Links


Below is a list of interesting links to different external web sites of Organisations which deal with and/or are involved in safety critical systems. It is not an exhaustive list and if you would like to add a link to your Organisation please send an email to the SSRC. Please note that neither SSRC nor University of Bristol can accept responsibility for material posted on these web sites.



Governing Bodies

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

Develops, maintains, updates and adopts a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping.


European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)

Develops, coordinates and plans for implementation of short-, medium- and long-term pan-European air traffic management strategies and their associated action plans in a collective effort involving national authorities, air navigation service providers, civil and military airspace users, airports, industry, professional organisations and relevant European institutions.


European Process Safety Centre

Provides an independent technical forum for the leadership and support of process safety within Europe through which promoting best practice in process safety across Europe both prevention and mitigation of chemical accident hazards.


Center for Chemical Process Safety

Addresses the most important process safety needs and encourages an overall culture of process safety. Its aim is to eliminate catastrophic process incidents by advancing state of the art technology and management practices, serving as the premier resource for information on process safety, supporting process safety in engineering, and promoting process safety as a key industry value.


Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

Contributes to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of Guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and technology (items which have both nuclear and non-nuclear applications) which could make a significant contribution to an unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activity.


Nuclear Industry Association

Improves the (1) commercial performance of the nuclear industry by assisting and supporting member companies to develop their businesses in the UK and overseas and (2) understanding of nuclear energy and the climate of political and public opinion in which the industry works and develops.


World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI)

Promotes sound and objective principles for ensuring that radioactive materials are transported safely, reliably and efficiently within a secure international framework.


World Nuclear Association (WNA)

Seeks to promote the peaceful worldwide use of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource for the coming centuries. Specifically, the Association is concerned with nuclear power generation and all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, including mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, plant manufacture, transport, and the safe disposition of spent fuel.


World Energy Council (WEC)

Promotes through its policy forum the sustainable supply and use of energy for the greatest benefit of all people. It covers all forms of energy and energy related issues in its work.


American Nuclear Society (ANS)

Unifies the professional activities within the diverse fields of nuclear science and technology within a not-for-profit, international, scientific and educational organization.


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Accident Investigation Bodies

Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB)

Examines and investigates all types of marine accidents to or on board UK ships worldwide, and other ships in UK territorial waters. The sole objective of MAIB accident investigations is to determine the circumstances and causes of the accident with a view to preserve life and avoid accidents in the future, not to apportion blame or liability.


Major Accident Hazards Bureau

Provides scientific and technical support to the actions of the European Commission in the area of control of Major Industrial Hazards.


The Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB)

Identifies the causes of accidents and other aspects that made the outcome worse in order to improve the safety of railways, and to prevent further accidents from occurring. Investigations are entirely independent and are focused solely on safety improvement. It does not apportion blame or liability nor enforce law or carry out prosecutions.


The UK Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB)

Investigates civil aircraft accidents and serious incidents within the UK in order to determine the circumstances and causes of the accident with a view to the preservation of life and the avoidance of accidents in the future. It is not to apportion blame or liability.


UK Airprox Board (UKAB)

Assesses reported Airprox in the interests of enhancing flight safety in the UK, in particular in respect of lessons to be learned and applied from Airprox occurrences reported within UK airspace. (Airprox is a situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or a controller, the distance between aircraft as well as their relative positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved was or may have been compromised).


U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

Is an independent federal agency charged with investigating industrial chemical accidents. It conducts root cause investigations of chemical accidents at fixed industrial facilities. The agency does not issue fines or citations, but does make recommendations to plants, regulatory agencies such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), industry organizations, and labour groups.


Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB)

Improves transport safety through, among other things, independent investigations of transport accidents and incidents and the making of safety action statements and recommendations that draw on the results of those investigations. It is not the purpose of the Bureau investigations to lay blame or provide a means for determining liability.


Aviation Safety Reporting System

Collects, analyses, and responds to voluntarily submitted aviation safety incident reports in order to lessen the likelihood of aviation accidents. This is a cooperative program established by the FAA and administered by NASA.


FAA Office of Accident Investigation

Investigates aviation accidents and incidents to detect unsafe conditions and trends and to coordinate the corrective action process.


National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)

Investigates accidents, conducts safety studies, evaluates the effectiveness of other government agencies' programs for preventing transportation accidents, and reviews appeals of enforcement actions involving airman and seaman certificates.



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Safety Standards Bodies and Related Resources

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Develops technical standards and facilitates the international coordination and unification of industrial standards.


International Electro-Technical Commission

Prepares and publishes international safety standards for all electrical, electronic, programmable electronic systems and related technologies.


The International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety (ICEMS)

Promotes research to protect public health from electromagnetic fields and develops the scientific basis and strategies for assessment, prevention, management and communication of risk, based on the precautionary principle.


International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES)

Promotes international science based safety standards for human exposure to electromagnetic energy through an open consensus process. Was formerly IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 28.


International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)

Disseminates information and advices on the potential health hazards of exposure to non-ionising radiation to everyone with an interest in the subject. Non-ionising radiations including, the optical radiations (ultraviolet, visible and infrared - and lasers), static and time-varying electric and magnetic fields and radio frequency (including microwave) radiation and ultrasound.


UK National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB) Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation (AGNIR)

Undertakes research to advance knowledge about protection from the risks of these radiations; provides laboratory and technical services; runs training courses; provides expert information and has a significant advisory role in the UK.


The Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee (AEEC)

Establishes for air transport avionics equipment and systems consensus-based, voluntary form, fit, function, and interface standards that are published by ARINC and are known as ARINC Standards.


European electro-technical standards group

Prepares voluntary electro technical standards and conformity assessment and related services needed to facilitate international trade in the fields of electricity, electronics and associated technologies. The Group is responsible for safety standards in the railway sector such as EN 50126 (dependability), EN 50128 (software) and EN 50129 (assurance).


European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Is the European standards body responsible for all non electro-technical standards.


European Telecom Standards Institute (ETSI)

Produces standards for telecommunication systems and concepts. Is officially responsible for standardization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe. These technologies include telecommunications, broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics.


British Standards Institute (BSI)

Is responsible for producing national standards that promote best practice in the UK.


NATO Standardization Agency (NSA)

Initiates, coordinates, supports and administers standardization activities conducted under the authority of the NATO Committee for Standardization (NCS). The NSA is also the Military Committees lead agent for the development, coordination and assessment of operational standardization.


UK Ministry of Defence Standards

Develops, facilitates and communicates UK MoD standardization policies, standards, procedures and guidance on standardization issues.


The Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society (ISA)

Develops standards, certifies industry professionals, provides education and training, publishes books and technical articles, and hosts the largest conference and exhibition for automation professionals in the Western Hemisphere.


American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

Coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the United States and represents the needs and views of U.S. stakeholders in standardization forums around the globe.


Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

Has an active standards generating function on areas ranging from aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric power and consumer electronics among others.



Develops consensus-based recommendations regarding communications, navigation, surveillance, and air traffic management (CNS/ATM) system issues.


The Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE)

Develops and maintains technical standards to ensure the global design, build, and support of the newest products, technologies, and applications.


Formal Methods Europe

Brings together researchers and practitioners in formal methods developing computing systems and software. Disseminates research findings and industrial experience through their symposia and sponsored events, develops information resources for educators and provides a networking function for commercial practitioners through ForTIA (Formal Techniques Industry Association).


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The European Union

European Commission

The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union and is a body independent of member states. Alongside the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, it is one of the three main Institutions governing the European Union.


Joint Research Centre

The mission of the JRC is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. As a service of the European Commission, the JRC functions as a reference centre of science and technology for the Union. Close to the policy-making process, it serves the common interest of the Member States, while being independent of special interests, whether private or national.


Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC)

The Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen provides research- based, systems-oriented support to EU policies so as to protect the citizen against economic and technological risk. The Institute maintains and develops its expertise and networks in information, communication, space and engineering technologies in support of its mission. The strong cross-fertilisation between its nuclear and non-nuclear activities strengthens the expertise it can bring to the benefit of customers in both domains.


IPSC - Nuclear Safeguards

The Unit provides enabling research, technology, instruments, technical services and training for nuclear security, including the verification of treaties and agreements, to Inspection Agencies, States and operators. Activities range from nuclear non-destructive analysis to surveillance, verification and detection technologies, including the proliferation assessment of new reactor systems and the specialist analysis of open source information and satellite imagery.


IPSC - Traceability and Vulnerability Assessment

The Unit Traceability and Vulnerability Assessment is developing, evaluating, and applying methods for assessing vulnerabilities of complex systems and infrastructures to technological, manmade (voluntary or not) and natural hazards. These methods are applied to energy security, maritime and ground transport security and food safety to identify possible solutions that counteract these vulnerabilities or reduce potential risks.


IPSC - Major Accident Hazards Bureau

The Major Accident Hazards Bureau (MAHB) has the specific remit to give independent scientific and technical support to the Commission to ensure the successful implementation and monitoring of EU policy on the control of major hazards and the prevention and mitigation of major accidents involving dangerous substances, chiefly the Seveso II Directive (96/82/EC). Regarding monitoring, MAHB actively promotes an information and methodology exchange between Member State inspectors to ensure a harmonised application of the Seveso II Directive in each country, through the Mutual Joint Visits programme and a dedicated website. MAHB maintains and updates the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS), analysing accident reports and extracting and disseminating the "lessons learnt" to competent authorities, industry and the safety research community in general.



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