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Publication - Professor Kerstin Eder

    Energy Transparency for Deeply Embedded Programs


    Georgiou, K, Kerrison, S, Chamski, Z & Eder, K, 2017, ‘Energy Transparency for Deeply Embedded Programs’. ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization, vol 14.


    Energy transparency is a concept that makes a program’s energy consumption visible, from hardware up to software, through the different system layers. Such transparency can enable energy optimizations at each layer and between layers, as well as help both programmers and operating systems make energy-aware decisions. In this article, we focus on deeply embedded devices, typically used for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and demonstrate how to enable energy transparency through existing static resource analysis (SRA) techniques and a new target-agnostic profiling technique, without hardware energy measurements. Our novel mapping technique enables software energy consumption estimations at a higher level than the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA), namely the LLVM intermediate representation (IR) level, and therefore introduces energy transparency directly to the LLVM optimizer. We apply our energy estimation techniques to a comprehensive set of benchmarks, including single- and multithreaded embedded programs from two commonly used concurrency patterns: task farms and pipelines. Using SRA, our LLVM IR results demonstrate a high accuracy with a deviation in the range of 1% from the ISA SRA. Our profiling technique captures the actual energy consumption at the LLVM IR level with an average error of 3%.

    Full details in the University publications repository