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Publication - Dr Nicolas Granger

    Effectiveness of manual bladder expression in paraplegic dogs


    Carwardine, D, Rose, J, Harcourt-Brown, TR & Granger, N, 2017, ‘Effectiveness of manual bladder expression in paraplegic dogs’. American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol 78., pp. 107-112


    To determine the effectiveness of manual bladder expression in paraplegic dogs whilst comparing urine volumes measured by intermittent catheterization and ultrasound.

    Ninety-three bladder volume measurements were prospectively collected from 36 paraplegic dogs.

    Residual urine volume was determined by intermittent urethral catheterization and ultrasound estimation.

    On average, manual bladder expression voids 49% of urine from the bladder in this population of dogs. There is no correlation between the effectiveness of manual bladder expression and body weight (R2 0.06). Ultrasonographic estimation of bladder volume shows good correlation (R2 0.62) but clinically unacceptable variation in predicting actual bladder volumes (Mean difference, 22 mL; CI, -96 to 139 mL).

    Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
    Manual bladder expression is ineffective at completely emptying the bladder of urine but the effectiveness of the procedure is not affected by body weight. It is still likely to be a useful procedure to prevent a build-up in pressure within the bladder. On average ultrasonographic estimation of bladder volume can be a useful predictor of actual bladder volume but is susceptible to wide variations for individual cases and so should be interpreted with a degree of caution.

    Full details in the University publications repository